ALCAPA Anomalous origin of Left Coronary Artery from Pulmonary Artery. Commonly associated with myocardial infarction.
Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection Pulmonary veins draining into Right Atrium directly or indirectly instead of getting connected to Left Atrium
Aortopulmonary Window Defect in the aortopulmonary septum creating a direct communication between ascending aorta and main pulmonary artery
AR Aortic Regurgitation
ARCAPA Anomalous origin of Right Coronary Artery from Pulmonary Artery.
AS Aortic Stenosis
ASA Atrial Septal Aneurysm
ASD Atrial Septal Defect
ASO Arterial Switch Operation : Reconnecting Aorta to LV and Pulmonary artery to RV with coronary reimplantation to neoaorta
AV Concordance Atrioventricular concordance i.e.RA connected to RV and LA connected to LV
AV Discordance Atrioventricular Discordance i.e. RA connected to LV and LA connected to RV
AVM Arteriovenous Malformations. Grouped into Sytemic AVM and Pulmonary AVM
AVSD Atrioventricular Septal Defect(Defect of Atrioventricular Septum and also involves abnormalities of Atrioventricular valves(Mitral and Tricuspid)
BAV Balloon Aortic Valvuloplasty
BDG Bidirectional Glenn Shunt
BP Blood Pressure
BPV Balloon Pulmonary Valvuloplasty
BT Shunt Blalock - Taussig Shunt. Surgery where Subclavian artery is connected to ipsilateral pulmonary artery.
BVH Biventricular hypertrophy
CAVSD Complete AV Septal Defect(Ostium Primum ASD + Inlet VSD + Common Atrioventricular valve with single annulus). Also called Endocardial Cushion Defect. Commonly associated with Down's Syndrome)
CCF/CHF Congestive Cardiac Failure/Congestive Heart Failure.
Cervical Arch Where Aortic Arch is situated high up, above the clavicle(as high as C2 vertebral body)
CoA Coarctation of Aorta. Presence of posteromedial shelf in descending aorta causing obstruction to aortic blood flow.
Cor Triatriatum Pulmonary Veins enter an accessory chamber that joins with Left Atrium by a narrow opening
Corrected Transposition(CTGA/LTGA) Both Atrioventricular and Ventriculoarterial Discordance
DCRV Double Chambered RV Cavity. Presence of a hypertrophied muscle band inside RV divides it into a proximal high pressure and a distal low pressure chamber.
Dextrocardia Location of heart in right hemithorax with apex pointing to right
DILV Double Inlet Left Ventricle.Both Mitral and Tricuspid Valve Flows Directed to Left Ventricle.This is the most common type of single ventricle
DIRV Double Inlet Right Ventricle. Both Mitral & Tricuspid Valves opening into RV.
DOLV Double Outlet Left Ventricle
DORV Double Outlet from Right Ventricle. Both great arteries arising from right ventricle.Another definition is one complete arterial trunk and at least 50% of the other great artery arising from right ventricle
Double Aortic Arch Where both right and left aortic arches are present
Doubly Committed VSD(Synonym: Supracristal/Sub VSD in the infundibular /outlet septum. It is committed to both aortic and pulmonary outflows.Very commonly associated with aortic valve prolapse and AR
Ebstein's Anomaly Downward displacement of septal and posterior leaflets of tricuspid valve into RV so that a portion of RV is incorporated into RA(Atrialized RV) and hypoplasia of functional RV
EF Ejection fraction. EF= Ventricular Enddiastolic Volume- Endsystolic Volume/Enddiastolic Volume .Expressed as percentage.
Fontan Operation Final surgery for single ventricle hearts where IVC blood is rerouted to pulmonary artery.
Glenn Shunt Surgery where SVC is connected to ipsilateral pulmonary artery. A stage of univentricular repair of heart.
HCM Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.
HLHS Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome.
HOCM Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy.
Holmes heart Double Inlet Left Ventricle with normally related great vessels
ICD Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator.
Inlet VSD Defect in inlet septum or crux of the heart.Upper margin of the septum is formed by the tricuspid and mitral valves.
Interrupted Aortic Arch An anomaly where there is complete separation between Ascending and Descending Aorta
Isomerism Bilaterality or symmetry of normally unilateral structures (e.g. bilateral trilobed lung)
IVC Inferior Vena Cava
LAA Left Atrial Appendage
LAD Left Axis Deviation
LBBB Left Bundle Branch Block
Left Aortic Arch When Aortic Arch crosses the left bronchus
Levocardia Location of heart in left hemithorax with apex pointing to left
MAPCAS Major Aorta Pulmonary Collaterals
Mesocardia Midline heart with major axis pointing to midline
MR Mitral Regurgitation
MS Mitral Stenosis
Muscular VSD VSD guarded on all sides by muscular rims
MVP Mitral Valve Prolapse
Ostium Primum ASD Defect in septum primum. Commonly associated with Down's syndrome
Ostium Secundum ASD The commonest type of ASD with the defect in Fossa Ovalis area of Interatrial Septum
PAPVC One or more, but not all pulmonary veins, connected to Right Atrium
Parachute Mitral valve Congenital Mitral Stenosis where all chordae of mitral valve are attached to a single papillary muscle.
PAVSD Partial AV Septal Defect (Ostium primum ASD+ Cleft Mitral Valve + Two Separate mitral and Tricuspid annuli)
PDA Patent Ductus Arteriosus ( an extracardiac shunt between left pulmonary artery and descending aorta distal to left subclavian artery which normally closes after birth)
Perimembranous VSD Commonest type of VSD.Defect in membranous Septum and is guarded by the tricuspid valve, the aortic valve and the crest of IVS
PFO Patent Foramen Ovale
Pott's Shunt Surgery where Descending Aorta is connected to left pulmonary artery.
PPHN Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of Newborn
PR Pulmonary Regurgitation
PS Pulmonary Stenosis
Pulmonary Atresia Absence of Pulmonary Valve.No direct continuity between RV and pulmonary artery
RAD Right Axis Deviation
RBBB Right Bundle Branch Block
Right Aortic Arch When Aortic Arch crosses the right bronchus
RSOV Ruptured Sinus of Valsalva.
RVDCC RV Dependent Coronary Circulation. Usually seen in cases with pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum
RVOT Right Ventricular Outflow Tract
SBE Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis
Scimitar Syndrome Anomalous connection of Right Pulmonary Veins to IVC or Hepatic Veins associated with usually a Turkish Sword like shadow along right cardiac border, hypoplasia of right lung and Collateral supply to right lung
Sinus Venosus ASD Rare type of ASD with defect posterior and superior to Fossa Ovalis
Situs Ambiguuous Indeterminate position of viscera and atria because of symmetric anatomy bilaterally
Situs Inversus Mirror image or right-left reversal of position of viscera and atria
Situs Solitus Normal position of viscera and atria.Identified in echo when IVC is to right and Aorta to left of spine
Supramitral Ring Congenital Mitral Stenosis where a connective tissue ring arises from the atrial surface of mitral valve and obstructs the same.
SVT Supraventricular Tachycardia
Swiss Cheese Septum Numerous , tiny VSDs in the muscular septum imparting a cribriform appearance to it.
TAPVC Anomalous connection of all four pulmonary veins
Taussig- Bing anomaly DORV with subpulmonic VSD with pulmonary arterial hypertension
TCPC Total Cavopulmonary Connection. Also called Fontan operation.
TGA Transposition of Great Arteries
TOF Tetralogy of Fallot
TR Tricuspid Stenosis
Transitional AVSD Subtype of Partial AVSD with a partially occluded small inlet VSD
Tricuspid Atresia Complete absence of Tricuspid valve with no direct communication between RA and RV
Truncus Arteriosus A single great artery with single semilunar valve arising from heart and giving rise to coronary , pulmonary and systemic circulations.
TS Tricuspid Stenosis
Unbalanced AVSD AVSD with hypoplasia of one ventricle
VA Concordance Ventriculoarterial concordance i.e.RV connected to PA and LV connected to Aorta
VA Discordance Ventriculoarterial Discordance i.e. Aorta connected to RV and PA connected to LV
Vascular Ring An aortic arch anomaly where the trachea and esophagus are encircled and compressed by the vascular structures.
VSD Ventricular Septal Defect
Waterston Shunt Surgery where Ascending Aorta is connected to main pulmonary artery.
WPW Wolff - Parkinson - White Syndrome.preexcitation syndrome characterized by short PR, delta wave and broad QRS